Dolphin N2’s submission to the Science & Technology Committee.

By January 21, 2019 No Comments

Dolphin N2’s submission to the Science & Technology Committee & how other British pioneers are trail blazing Cryogenics & CryoPower.

Dolphin N2 has become the latest company to submit written evidence to the Science and Technology Committee, who are undertaking an inquiry into the technologies needed to meet Clean Growth emissions reduction targets. This submission responds to the issues identified in the Science and Technology Commons Select Committee Inquiry, Technologies for meeting Clean Growth emissions reduction targets, and specifically addresses measures for commercial subsectors of Transport including Heavy Goods Vehicles, Shipping and Rail. (1)

Dolphin N2 is industrialising a new technology, CryoPower, targeted at substantial reduction of  carbon emissions and air pollutants for industrial engine applications in heavy transport, shipping, rail and power generation, and with capability to use a full range of decarbonised fuels including hydrogen. The early stage innovation of CryoPower has been funded by Ricardo PLC and Innovate UK. Dolphin N2 plans to manufacture in the UK.” Simon Brewster – CEO Dolphin N2 (1)

The submission recognises that ‘transport has recently grown and is now the largest CO2 emitting Sector at 28% of the UK inventory.’ (1)

The submission also identifies the utility of liquid fuels as an energy storage vector:

‘Significant reduction of carbon emissions must deploy technologies that work efficiently with liquid fuels, and therefore include internal combustion engines. The final carbon emissions from vehicles are determined by both the carbon intensity of the fuel, and the efficiency with which it is converted into useful power.’


The Dolphin N2 team have been working tirelessly to ensure the CryoPower split cycle engine’s “game changing” possibilities are recognised by a growing & developing global audience. Since the inception of the CryoPower split cycle engine design, originally being part of the Ricardo Plc portfolio; the technology has been being collaboratively developed from the 1990’s. Professor Robert Morgan – Professor of Thermal Propulsion Systems (University of Brighton), has been collaborating on the split-cycle engine with Ricardo Plc since the 1990’s & has continued to collaborate & work alongside the Dolphin N2 team, in their spin off from Ricardo capacity.

The cryogenics market is being increasingly recognised as  an environmentally attractive alternative for fuel & power generation. Nitrogen is currently a by-product of industrial oxygen and argon manufacture so the ‘well to wheel’ is very advantageous.  Beyond that capacity, further production can use time energy from renewables.  The use of the fuel in inner cities has the advantage that is has zero emissions at point of use since Nitrogen is the major part of the ambient air. Dolphin N2 are mindful that their CryoPower split cycle engine, sits amongst other global pioneering technologies, all trail blazing for the net zero emissions capabilities of the cryogenic system.

‘Cryogenic liquids—liquefied natural gas and liquid hydrogen—are candidate fuels. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is attractive for the near term, while hydrogen is projected to be “the fuel of the future.” Both cryogens offer important advantages over other fuels now in use or being considered. Both are low-polluting and have a high energy content per unit weight.’ (2)

Therefore, what else can be done to dramatically reduce the pollutants from our transportation systems & which other pioneering companies are embracing the Cryogenic model? Two other British Cryogenic trail blazers are Dearman & Highview Power.


Dearman have developed a “liquid nitrogen-powered engine” (3) The Dearman transport refrigeration unit (TRU) is a zero emissions engine designed to power the refrigeration engine in food transportation delivery. This secondary liquid nitrogen-powered engine “emits no nitrogen oxides or particulate matter.” (3)

“A large supermarket delivery truck bringing fresh produce to a store tends to have not one, but two diesel engines- the main engine to propel the vehicle, and a second engine to power the refrigeration.

In contrast, the second engine powering a Dearman transport refrigeration unit (TRU) is zero emission. It emits no nitrogen oxides or particulate matter. This is a groundbreaking innovation that has arrived just as public policy awareness increases of the harms of diesel pollution.” (3)

Highview Power

With an ever growing demand for domestic energy supply, Highview Power have harnessed the versatile & environmental benefitting power of Cryogenics. Highview Power’s technology is based on the air liquefication principle, enabling the storage of air as a liquid. The benefits of this type of high-density storage, is that once there is a need for energy supply, the liquid can be reverted back in to a gaseous form, generating energy which powers the Highview Power turbines, subsequently producing instantly available & sustainable energy supplies.

The Highview Power liquefication system is base on a three-phase process:

1/ Air is compressed & turned into a liquid.

2/ The liquid air is then stored in high-density storage tanks.

3/ The liquid air is then converted into gas & used to power turbines, subsequently generating electricity (4)

‘Air turns to liquid when cooled down to -196°C (-320˚F), and can then be stored very efficiently in insulated, low pressure vessels. Exposure to ambient temperatures causes rapid re-gasification and a 700-fold expansion in volume, which is then used to drive a turbine and create electricity without combustion.’ (4)

As the United Kingdom forges it’s way forward in the ever changing world of emission reduction & net zero capabilities, we should recognise with pride the innovators who are striving to achieve the climate changing necessities for our future generations.

Written by Katy-Jane Mason on behalf of Dolphin N2.